Blog Sites Aligned to the Sun

Mudumal Megaliths – Does India’s Oldest Sun Observatory reveal Neolithic roots of Vedic Architecture?

India’s largest ancient megalithic site with alignments to the solstices and equinoxes is spread across 80 acres of farmland near Mudumal village in India’s southern State of Telangana.

Photo via Subhashis Das and his website Megaliths India.

The site is undoubtedly an important part of India’s heritage by any measure, being the oldest observatory in South Asia according to a team of historians and archeologists. It could be as old as 5000 BC.1

However, its design may also provide clues that shed new light on the possible ancient megalithic roots of India’s sacred architectural traditions. Its distinctive square and grid layout — a style found in a number of megalithic sites in that part of India — is reminiscent of the Vedic architectural system used to design sacred spaces, such as Hindu temples, that also uses square and grid based designs to convey spiritual principles of creation. This tradition, known as Vāstu Shāstra, has been in use for thousands of years and is still used today. Could this ancient tradition have links to an even older neolithic past?

India’s largest megalithic site

A report by The Bangalore Mirror, describes the megalithic site in Mudumal as having “80 big menhirs [standing stones] as tall as 12 to 14 feet, and about 2000 alignment stones of about 1-2 feet high”. It is estimated to be as much as 7,000 years old by local researchers, and consists of a number of stone arrangements spread across the area, some older than others.2 More conservative estimates date the site at between 3,000 to 3,500 years old, although its exact age is unknown.

Most of the larger standing stones have fallen down over the passage of time, and many still standing have become slanted. Unfortunately, the land around the stones is actively farmed, so the soil is tilled and crops are grown and harvested right around the base of the stones. Sadly, the site has not been well preserved.

Nevertheless, enough remains to determine the archaeoastronomical basis of the site. Archeologists and historians from the Telangana Archaeology Department and Hyderabad Central University describe it as “undoubtedly the earliest astronomical observatory from India or even south Asia” due to its age and various astronomical alignments.3

This local TV news report on the site is not in English, but the footage provides a good on-the-ground perspective of the site (there are very few pictures of the site available for use):

Grid layout of alignment stones

Rather than circle formations, the larger megalithic arrangements in South India tend to be square-like formations “arranged in a grid usually aligned to the cardinal directions”.4 5  This layout style is described as follows:

The plan consists of stones arranged in parallel rows with equal spacing. The stone arrangements are either square-like, a checker board, or a square with a diagonal arrangement consisting of one more stone in the centre of a mini-square formed from a set of four stones.6

At Mudumal, rows of stones running east-west in these grid formations have been found to align to different significant solar events. Professor KP Rao from Hyderabad University has been studying the site for more than a decade, and his team has discovered a number of solstice alignments:

…some of these alignments are planted in such a way that the rows are exactly in line with the rising and setting sun on the days of solar significance. Observations made on 20-21 June (summer solstice) and 21-22 December (winter solstice) revealed that specific alignments are aligned to the sun on morning and evening. Thus each row is planned in such a way that it gets aligned to the sun at specific time and date. If one row gets aligned in the morning, another row gets aligned in the evening.7

“Sky-map” made of cup marks

Professor KP Rao also found what he calls a “sky-map” on one of the stones, formed by cup marks, or “cupules”, which he says depicts the Ursa Major constellation:

The Ursa Major constellation. Image by Thomas Bresson [CC BY 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons:

Among a group of stone circles, a square stone has a number of cup-marks. These cup-marks resemble the pattern of the Ursa Major constellation. Apart from similarity in the pattern, even the orientation of the stars is followed carefully in the depiction. This sky-map is probably the earliest chart of the night-sky found anywhere in South Asia.8

KP Rao asserts that “Mudumal has a near perfect depiction of this constellation” known as the Great Bear or Big Dipper in other parts of the world, and Saptarshi Mandal in ancient Indian literature. He notes this constellation had significance in the ancient world because a line connecting two of its stars always points due north. He found  cup marks representing these stars that also align north in the same way.9

The footage in this local language news report shows scientists visiting the site and pointing out  cup marks on one of the stones (at the 27 second mark):

Equinox alignments and local ceremonies

KP Rao reports that local people still use the site for religious practice, with a northern menhir worshiped as a representation of a male deity, and another nearby stone, shorter and dark in color, venerated as a representation of a female deity. 10

Another team of researchers also observed local religious practices. Researchers N. Kameswara Rao, Priya Thakur and Yogesh Mallinathpur visited the Mudumal site on the equinox to discover if it had  equinox alignments, and observed local people coming to the site to offer prayers and celebrate the occasion. In a research paper  published in 2011, they stated this could demonstrate a continuing tradition linked to ancient times, based around the alignments found there.11

autumn equinox at site in india

Autumn equinox sunrise at the megalithic site of Punkri Burwadih in India. Photo via Subhashis Das and his website Megaliths India.

Megalithic sites in India have been found to feature both equinox and solstice alignments, such as the endangered Punkri Burwadih sacred site in Jharkhand state.  The above mentioned researchers also documented both equinox and solstice alignments at the Mudumal site in Telengana state.12

Their study focused on the largest of the Mudumal Menhirs,  a formation known by local villagers as “Nilurallu”, which means “standing stones” in the area’s regional language, Telugu. They note the site has been designated “non-sepulchal”, meaning it was not used for burials, but more likely for its “astronomical connotations”.13

While they could not confirm the existence of a star-map on site, their survey confirmed “the rows of stones are aligned to the directions of sunrise (and sunset) on calendrically-important events, like equinoxes and solstices”. They also found that the stones were arranged in a manner that allowed their shadows, cast by the sun, to be used to measure the time.14

It is very clear… the stone rows are distinctly aligned to sunrises and sun-sets during both the equinoxes and the solstices. Several issues regarding the squarish plan— a general feature of all of the stone alignments in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh region… apply to Nilurallu. Although the present site lacks the sharp-edged demarcations… it does look to be a square.15

A link to Vāstu Shāstra – sacred Vedic architecture?

The incorporation of the square in ancient Indian sacred sites has a long history, having found expression in Vedic principles and Hindu sacred architecture, as described below:

According to the Vāstu Shāstra, the traditional Hindu system of architectural design, the structure of a building mirrors the emergence of cosmic order out of primordial chaos through the act of measurement. The universe is symbolically mapped onto a square, vāstu-mandala, that emphasizes the four cardinal directions. The basic forms of this square are used as the basic plan for the house and the city.16

A traditional Hindu temple grid plan called Pitha Mandala based on Vastu shastra. By Mark.muesse (Own work) (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Wikimedia Commons

Vastu shastra means “science of architecture”. It is described in the Vedas and later Hindu texts. The square based arrangements are organized in grid layouts called Mandalas which represent the structure of the universe, such that the building reflects principles of creation on a microcosmic scale. The principles of this form of design are incorporated into Hindu temples and can be seen for example at the Angkor Wat temple in Cambodia, which also aligns to the equinox. 17

A square is based on the number four. The number four is intrinsically related to the process and structure of creation, which is a principle conveyed in a number of ancient traditions, including Hinduism:

The number four is related to the process of creation, which is connected to the time of the winter solstice. …ancient Vedic texts describe the sun as a lotus flower with four petals […] Four forms the foundation of life and encompasses the bounds of creation.It is found in the four cardinal directions; the four points of the cross of the year, which are the solstices and equinoxes; the four elements; the dimensions of our physical world which are length, width, height, and time; and the four material bodies within each person—physical, vital, astral, and mental. The birth of stars, which then produce the rest of matter, can be found in the birth of the Son/sun and child of light, who brings the light of the first day, and proceeds to make the rest of creation. The Son, who in Hindu accounts of creation splits everything into three and stretches it out to make both earth and sky—creating the four corners of the world—is like the expansion of three-dimensional space, as well as the fourth dimension […] Thus, in creation, the Son who is one of the three forces of creation establishes the four, creating the space-time continuum in which space and time are joined together to create the four-dimensional object we all live within, which is the foundation of life and found in the movement of the sun, forming a cross of four arms and the rotating swastika.

It is interesting to note that Indian megalithic sites like the one at Mudumal, and later Hindu temples, both appear to incorporate designs based on a square and grid layout aligned to the cardinal directions, to create a sacred space, principles which are also found in Vedic scripture.

Traditional Hindu temple layouts based on Vastu Shastra principles using square and grid based designs. Square and grid designs also feature at prehistoric Indian megalithic sites. By Verena Rapp de Eston (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Could the Mudumal observatory be a proto-Vedic design? Was it perhaps an early example of people in India seeking to encode these design principles in a sacred space—principles eventually formalized in Vedic Vastu Shastra architectural manuals that informed later Hindu temple designs? Could this mean Vedic architectural traditions have roots in an older neolithic past of megalithic construction? Or was this site more a case of local people adapting sacred design principles to their own regional megalithic culture?

The answer may become clearer by understanding and confirming the true age of the site, which so far has been a matter of estimation. What seems evident however, is that the site has more than a regional significance—it likely has global connections as well.

Connection to ancient global sun religion

The Mudumal site is just one of many little-known megalithic sites in India. Megaliths are found right across India and South Asia but are comparatively far less studied or protected than their counterparts in Europe. No one knows how many there are, but there are estimated to be thousands, covering a range of different types including “menhirs, alignments, avenues, cists, dolmens, dolmenoid cists, stone circles, cairn burials (burrows), rock cut chambers”.18 Some estimate there are more than 2,200 megalithic sites just in the Southern peninsular region of India alone, none of which has been properly excavated.19

Megalithic sites aligned to the sun are found right across the world. Interestingly, cup marks have been found on other megalithic sites not just in India, but worldwide on every continent except Antarctica20 although the most well-known and studied are perhaps in Atlantic Europe.21


Depicting the Hindu story of Manu, who was saved from a great flood by the god Vishnu in the form of a fish. He brought the Vedas (spiritual knowledge) and seven sages in his boat.

This suggests the builders of the Mudumal site may be linked to the ancient global civilization of the sun which arose at the end of the last ice age, from which a number of other ancient cultures descended, including ancient India — whose mythology concerning the re-seeding of civilization by the sea-faring wisdom bringer Manu after catastrophic flooding, parallels the mythology of other ancient civilizations linked to the Religion of the Sun like Ancient Egypt and Sumer. This common mythology in the ancient world likely derives from actual flooding that occurred at the end of the last ice age, 11,500 years ago.222324 Ancient chronicles record that  survivors of an older advanced civilization set sail to re-seed civilization around the world and bring the knowledge of the Religion of the Sun at this time.2526 27

The recent nearby discovery of 4000 year old jewellery, also in the State of Telangana, as reported by The Hindu, is perhaps further evidence of such a connection. The diamond-shaped jewellery features the symbol of three concentric rings (view picture here). 28 This symbol, similar to the cup marks, has also been found across the world in cultures and places linked to practice of the ancient Religion of the Sun. It can be seen as representing the source of creation and the trinity of forces which underpin it.  This gallery provides examples of its widespread global use in the ancient world.

How was it built?

How the site was built remains a mystery. The Mudumal menhirs stand out in India due to the size of the site which consists of thousands of stones. The tallest are said to be approaching 5-6 metres in height. 29

The stones are made of granite, one of the hardest stones around, yet none of the menhirs show any signs of being chiseled.30

Rao,  Thakur and Mallinathpur were also mystified as to how it could have been built:

Answers to the questions of where the stones come from, how they were shaped and transported, and how they were erected are not clear. Our survey of the terrain immediately surrounding the site did not reveal any stone quarries, which indicates that the stones originated from somewhere else […] A granite stone 4 meters in height and 1.2 meters in radius would weigh ~48 tons, so it is a major challenge to determine how such stones could have been transported to the megalithic site and erected […] Considerable knowledge of engineering and astronomy was required for the successful construction of this megalithic structure.31

The footage in this local language news report gives a perspective on the size of the stones as it frequently shows people standing next to them:

The need for protection and preservation

The Mudumal site is on private farmland, and like many megalithic sites across India, it is not well-known nationally or globally. However it has fared better than many other megaliths which have been destroyed by development in the country, in part at least because local people still treat some sections of the site as a sacred place. 32

Nevertheless, Dr. Pulla Rao says that menhirs scattered throughout the surrounding fields need further protection.33

Six years ago, Rao,  Thakur and Mallinathpur described the situation surrounding the preservation as very dire:

It is a pity that such an impressive structure is slowly being destroyed: stones are being removed, and because the land is under cultivation the stability of the stones is threatened. During the two years or so that our study was carried out several stones were removed from the site, and its long-term survival is under threat. The area is at present privately owned, but we would urge relevant Government and other agencies to now make every effort to preserve this unique heritage site.34

However, there has since been renewed interest in the site by local authorities, including the Telangana Archaeology Department.

According to a Bangalore Mirror report, State archaeology director Visalakshi  “directed officials to fence off the area which has been unprotected so far” in October 2016, and pledged to submit a report to the government calling for more protection. Officials expressed interest in purchasing the land to allow it to be turned it into a tourist site.35

Interestingly, the site was examined by South Korean researchers in January 2017 who noted similarities between petroglyphs in the region and rock art found at megalithic sites in South Korea.  They expressed sadness at the site’s deterioration however.36

A Menhir threatened by development in Maharashtra. By Drsanjaychilbule  [GFDL  or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

It remains to be seen how the preservation of the site will unfold, but it is clear this is just one of a number of megalithic sites in India that needs greater protection, which are an important part of the region’s ancient heritage—it may even be an ancient megalithic link to Vedic principles of sacred architecture still used in Hinduism today. The building of sacred sites with solstice and equinox alignments in India appears to have carried through at least into the medieval period in temple architecture, and indeed some Hindu temples in use today still feature these alignments. However, the celebration of solstices and equinoxes was once much more central in India culture. The knowledge and significance of these events, and alignments to them in sacred spaces, seems to have faded or been forgotten over time at many sites—though certainly not all— while in other cases archaeoastronomical temples were outright destroyed by Islamic invaders in the medieval period.37

Researcher Subhashis Das has been dedicated to raising awareness about India’s megaliths and calling for their protection. More on the Mudumal site and other megaliths in India can be read about on his website Megaliths in India.

Last updated 20 November 2017

  1. Earliest astronomical observatory dating back to 5000 BC found in Telangana village, P Pavan, Bangalore Mirror Bureau, Oct 24, 2016:
  2. Ibid
  3. Ibid
  4. Srikumar M. Menon, Mayank N. Vahia, Kailash Rao, Stone alignment with solar and other sightlines in South India, CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 102, NO. 5, 10 MARCH 2012, available here:
  5. N. Kameswara Rao, P. Thakur and Y. Mallinathpur, The Astronomical Significance of ‘Nilurallu’, The Megalithic Stone Alignment at Murardoddi in Andhra Pradesh, India, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 14(3), 211-220 (2011). Available here:
  6. Ibid
  7. “Ancient Sky-Map From Mudumal” K.P. RAO:
  8. Ibid
  9. Ibid
  10. K.P Rao, Astronomical Relationship of South Indian Megaliths, Published in Proceedings volume of the 7th Oxford International Conference on Archaeoastronomy held at Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, Viewing the Sky through Past and Present Cultures, Todd W. Bostwick and Bryan Bates (Ed.), City of Phoenix, 2006. pp.421-432. Accessed here:
  11. N. Kameswara Rao, P. Thakur and Y. Mallinathpur, The Astronomical Significance of ‘Nilurallu’, The Megalithic Stone Alignment at Murardoddi in Andhra Pradesh, India, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 14(3), 211-220 (2011). available here:
  12. Ibid
  13. Ibid
  14. Ibid
  15. Ibid
  16. Subhash Kak, Clive Ruggles, Michel Cotte, Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the context of the World Heritage Convention: A Thematic Study, Chapter 6: India, ICOMOS-IAU Thematic Study no. 1 (2010), available here:
  17. Wikipedia, Vastu Shastra:
  18. K.P Rao, Astronomical Relationship of South Indian Megaliths

  • Vikhar Ahmed Sayeed, Megalithic wonder, Frontline Magazine, :
  • Subhashis Das, Cupules/Cupmarks, January 14, 2012, Megaliths of India:
  • Wikipedia “Cup and Ring Mark”:
  • Note: The last major ice age was known as the “Younger Dryas”. According to the US National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI): “The end of the Younger Dryas, about 11,500 years ago, was particularly abrupt.” NCEI. Accessed August 03, 2017.
  • Note: The end of the Younger Dryas was marked by a surge in sea levels known as “meltwater pulse 1B”, driven by the higher temperatures of sudden climate change melting ice caps. According to NASA, this occurred, “11,500-11,000 years ago, when sea level may have jumped by 28 m according to Fairbanks, although subsequent studies indicate it may have been much less [around 6 or 7.5 m, which is still a major rise].” NASA. Accessed August 03, 2017.
  • Paul A LaViolette, “The Generation of Mega Glacial Meltwater Floods and Their Geologic Impact”. Hydrol Current Res 8:269. doi: 10.4172/2157-7587.1000269, March 2017. Accessed August 3 1017:
  • The most common such story is the destruction of Atlantis in 9,600 BC, given in Plato’s Critias dialogue, a date which correlates with the dramatic sea level rise of “meltwater pulse 1B” at the end of the last ice age. This dialogue recounts the information Plato claimed was given to a Greek during his visit to an Egyptian temple. However other cultures retain stories of the coming of wisdom bringers from a lost civilization, including those of Mesoamerica
  • Graham Hancock describes this lost civilization as “a maritime civilization: a nation of navigators” and cites in support of this the “remarkable ancient maps of the world, the ‘Pyramid Boats’ of Egypt, the traces of advanced astronomical knowledge in the astonishing calendar system of the Maya, and the legends of seafaring gods like Quetzalcoatl and Viracocha. Hancock, Graham, Fingerprints of the Gods (Three Rivers Press, 1995), 443.
  • Lara Atwood, The Lost Civilization of the sun – A Missing Link in our Ancient Past, Sakro Sawel:
  • Serish Nanisetti, The Hindu, Revealed: 4,000-year-old bone jewels, 07 August 2017,
  • K.P Rao, Astronomical Relationship of South Indian Megaliths
  • Ibid
  • N. Kameswara Rao, P. Thakur and Y. Mallinathpur, The Astronomical Significance of ‘Nilurallu’
  • K.P Rao, Astronomical Relationship of South Indian Megaliths
  • Bangalore Miror, 24th October, 2016, Earliest Astronomical Observatory Dating Back To 5000 Bc Found In Telangana Village:
  • N. Kameswara Rao, P. Thakur and Y. Mallinathpur, The Astronomical Significance of ‘Nilurallu
  • Bangalore Miror, Earliest Astronomical Observatory Dating Back To 5000 Bc Found In Telangana Village
  • Rajitha S, The New Indian Express, South Korean archaeologists find Telangana connect to art work on megaliths,
  • Aravindan Neelakandan, Discovery Of India’s ‘Oldest Observatory’ Reconnects Us To Our Ancient Sacred Culture, Swarajyamag Dec 31, 2016:
  • About the author

    Matthew Osmund

    Matthew Osmund is Chief Editor of, a website exploring the history and practice of the ancient Religion of the Sun. A keen writer since his youth, he holds a Bachelor of Arts in Journalism and has a natural interest in probing hidden truths and higher knowledge. He felt called to study spirituality in 2004 and has pursued it ever since. On The Spiritual Sun, he directs his skills and inquisitive nature towards shedding light on the ancient Religion of the Sun, which he investigates both as a writer/researcher and practitioner.


    • I visited this Mudumala Megalithic burial site on the left bank of the river Krishna in Mehboob Nagar District in sometime in the month of August-2002 for the first time alongwith my staff when I was working as Assistant Director for that jurisdiction that too on foot in those days by covering 20kms. up and down. By that time I visited the site for the first time I observed more number of alignment stones at this place and I also observed on the huge boulders very close to the river bank some rock art on white pigments and some of them were identified as the earliest worship including Mother Goddess by Dr. V. V.Krishna Shastry Director, Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Andhra Pradesh and it was mentioned in his Book titled as Pre and Proto History of Andhra Pradesh with photographs.By that time in 2002 I didn’t think this alignment of the Mudumala Megalithic burials in Archaeo Astronomical concept and rarity of its nature, otherwise stringent measures would have been taken-up to protect and preserve this site for further research purposes.

    • Thanks for this article Matthew.

      As others have said, I too found it quite sad to see the power lines at the site and hear about how it’s been compromised in general over time due to lack of protection, etc. On the other hand, it was amazing to hear about how when the researchers came to observe it on the equinox, they found people coming to offer prayers and celebrate the equinox.

      Hopefully the fact that there is at least some local interest, along with the efforts of Subhashis Das and others like him who study these sites, will lead to the preservation and care these sites in India deserve. Then they can be studied further to help shed light on the past, not to mention enjoyed into the future.

    • Very interesting site and article Mathew!
      It’s great to see more information emerging about ancient sites in India. It does seem odd, given the wealth of the sub-continent’s spiritual heritage, that there aren’t so many known ancient sites that can be linked to the Civilization of the Sun. But in light of your response to Sunhashis, underlining the possible reasons why these megalithic constructions are undervalued, it makes sense. It also makes sense that there are so many more unknown and unexplored sites like this one in India, that hopefully will become recognised for their worth and as you say, used to add to the missing information about India’s ancient past.

    • Wonderful Matthew…Indian megaliths hidden under the glare of European megaliths till now are gradually being brought to the forefront. But one needs to learn more about non Vedic tribals as it were them who were the authors of the megalithic culture in India. Both tribal and the Vedic/Hindu civilisations are different. It is however difficult to conclude that Vedic astronomy or Vedanga Astrology has anything to do with megalithic astronomy as the Brahmanical astronomers may not had been in connection with the non Aryan megalithic tribal astronomers as they were held lowly in the Vedic format of the caste system of ancient India . Vedic astronomy and later Brahmanical astronomers as Aryabhatt, Varahamihir etc propagated the Vedic Siddhanta astronomy which was based on calculations but megalithic astronomy was observational or horizon astronomy hence had quite a few errors.

      • Hi Subhashis,

        Thanks for your comment. You raise some very good points; I think this is such an important issue that to provide an adequate response I have to go into some detail to explain my thinking. So please excuse the length of my response.

        I am aware there are different ancestries in India (i.e the Vedic/Dravidian ancestries and various other tribal groups). But the impression I get is that the discussion around this has been heavily politicized for different reasons, which prevents ancient history being looked at outside the lens of the current narratives shaped by present political/social issues and divides.

        I think a lot of that stems from the weight of abuses that have definitely happened under the caste system where as you say, upper Brahmanical castes have unfortunately treated lower castes and tribal people badly. Perhaps it is as an extension of that, that we see the Indian Government and authorities disregarding these megalithic sites, or failing to protect them, perhaps for political reasons, because they see them as something significant to tribal people only and don’t appreciate them, which is such a shame.

        Now I don’t claim to know who built the site — it could very well have been built by a tribal group like you say. What I am saying is that this site, and others like it, shows design principles that are also reflected in Vedic architecture, and so it has something in common with it. It shows an appreciation for common spiritual values being expressed. That doesn’t mean it was built by Brahamical people, or built using their specific astronomical system (which was likely formalized and written down long after this site was built). While it is possible these similarities could just be a coincidence, I think it more likely suggests some level of cultural exchange or cooperation.

        To explain my thinking, I need to say that when looking at sites this ancient, I think it is very important not to look at them through the lens of more modern political and social problems/divides. Recent genetic scientific studies has proven that the social landscape in India say 4000 years ago, was very, very different to how it was 2000 or 1500 years ago, let alone the past few hundred years.

        For example, a recent genetic study from 2013 has shown that caste system as it is known today, only became entrenched about 1900 years ago. 4000 years ago, there was not the prejudices that later existed, and people freely married each other from different social groups:

        The caste system in South Asia — which rigidly separates people into high, middle and lower classes — may have been firmly entrenched by about 2,000 years ago, a new genetic analysis suggests.

        Researchers found that people from distinct genetic populations in India began mixing about 4,500-4,200 years ago, but the mingling stopped around 1,900 years ago, according to the analysis published today (Aug. 8) in the American Journal of Human Genetics […]

        Though relationships between people of different social groups was once common, there was a “transformation where most groups now practice endogamy,” or marry within their group, said study co-author Priya Moorjani, a geneticist at Harvard University.

        A more recent study from last year suggests it even more recently, about 1500 years ago, that the caste system became entrenched. In some parts of India it was even later than that.

        So we know that at least 4200 years ago, those whom geneticist have called the “Ancestral North Indians”, otherwise known as Aryans, were freely mixing with and marrying other populations in India. The mixing was so widespread, that it suggests people from different backgrounds were getting along well and cooperating.

        The divisions and divides are a much more recent and unfortunate development that became set in about 1900-1500 years ago, which today have overshadowed the perception how things were before that, and perhaps prevented people from realizing there was a very different spirit of cooperation and harmony that probably existed before.

        If people were cooperating and living together to that extent back then, then it would make sense that they might build sites together, or at the very least share and exchange knowledge during that time period which would lead to commonalities in the developments of both Vedic culture and the expression of principles in tribal cultures. And that could explain why we see common principles being expressed. I should clarify I am talking about principles, not construction and calculation methods used to express those principles, which can vary from one culture to another.

        When we look at many cultures of the ancient world, we see different approaches, languages, styles etc, but often see similar and common principles expressed through them. We highlight those similarities on this site, and argue that if you go back far enough, they tend to link back to common source, from which many cultures descended or had contact with.

        So it’s possible that both the Vedic culture and tribal cultures shared ideas, and then expressed common principles in their own ways. Its also possible, given the vast extent of intermixing going on back then, that people developed something of a common overarching culture, which drew upon both Vedic and tribal traditions, and that in turn gave rise to Hinduism which was originally much more inclusive (which undoubtedly still retained local variances).

        Unfortunately, over thousands of years, that spirit of inclusivity changed and the caste system became a rigid tool of social divide. But that was a much, much later development.

        The other point to make, is that the Ancestral North Indian / Indo European / Aryan ancestry of people in India have both a genetic and linguistic relationship to those in Europe, the caucuses and central Asia. And megalithic structures were built all through that region too where the Indo European people were present. If Indo Europeans built megaliths everywhere else they lived, why not in India too?

        I am talking about what could be an older form of culture and construction than what was later formalized in later Vedic systems of astronomy. The people of Europe also developed a whole range of more modern mathematical and astronomical knowledge too, but those same people, in more ancient times, had a neolithic culture where they built various megalithic structure aligned to the sun like those in India. What I am suggesting is that those Vedic systems could have been rooted in older megalithic systems and developed out of them. Perhaps new ways were found to express principles (like the square a grid design etc) which were once expressed in megalithic construction using different methods.

        Given that we know the Indo European people had megalthic cultures pretty much wherever they were present, and given the scientific evidence we have for intermixing of different people in India at least as far back as 4,200 years ago, I think it is more than possible that there was cooperation to build these sites.

        It’s also possible that the megaliths in India — at least those with archaeoastronomcal alignments — tell us something about the early years of Hinduism, where people of different backgrounds were actually freely intermarrying, associating and cooperating. And perhaps Vedic design principles later used in temples, drew upon principles first expressed in megalithic construction far earlier.

        I wish to say that my thinking on this is not fixed — it is more like a working hypothesis. However, when you look at the archeological and megalithic record of the Indo European/Aryan people throughout the world and the appearance of megaliths pretty much wherever they were, and the genetic evidence of intermixing with other groups in ancient India suggesting cooperation before the caste system became entrenched, then what I am suggesting is not as unlikely as it might at first seem, and I think it is hypothesis at least worth exploring and considering.

        It may even have important implications for increasing the prospects of protecting these sites. Because if what I am saying is true, and if the Government realized these megalithic sites were part of the history of early Hinduism and could have a connection to it, and if they understood that they express design principles (note: by design principles I do not mean design methods) that Hinduism may have retained in some temple architecture, then they might just give them more protection. They would no longer be seen as an isolated form of tribal expression but perhaps as a missing link in understanding the history of ancient India and the development of Hinduism, with these sites perhaps being the oldest evidence of certain spiritual principles being expressed in construction, that have actually carried through in Hinduism, even if the megalithic roots have been forgotten.

        Anyway, whether you agree with me or not, I want to commend you for all your hard work on this subject. Whatever the case may be with these megaliths, I think we can all agree they should be protected regardless of who built them, and I think the work you are doing on that front, to raise awareness about them, is indispensable.

        • Thank you Matthew for the article and the comments. Thank you also to Sabhashis – your comments are very welcome indeed!
          I agree that the more research into these Indian megaliths would prove valuable in trying to unravel the mysteries of the past.

    • It is incredible how similar the site looks to those in Europe.

      I appreciate the square layout. I have also seen a small example of this in the site of St. Non’s Well and Chapel in Pembrokeshire, with the the stones marking the cardinal directions being directly north of the stones marking winter solstice alignments. It made me wonder why this was done, and what the builders meant through its construction.

    • Very interesting, especially about the sacred square design. Looking at those two mandala layouts, it is interesting to see how different square-based symetries can be achieved, one always containing the even number of squares on its sides (4, 6 and 8), and another one the odd number (5, 7 and 9).

    • The architectural principles of the Vastu Shastras and the way they’ve been represented in this site is very fascinating. Although the site might seem quite simple, the concepts it is conveying are not.

      How it represents the emergence of cosmic order from primordial chaos is profound, not to mention the remarkable stellar map and technology required to quarry and move those megaliths from who knows where.

    • The stones look amazing very ancient and mystical, then you have all the farming around them and power lines over head it seems a real paradox really, thanks for sharing

    • Hopefully with more research and recognition these sites can be protected in India and throughout Asia. I have to say the first image of those big power lines either side of the megaliths is quite sad!

      Was very interesting to see the clear indications of a culture linked to the global ancient religion of the sun active at this site, like those cup marks made as the Ursa Major constellation, and those diamond shaped pieces with the three rings of creation.

      • I had the same thought, Jon, when I saw that image with the towers. Sad to see these ancient sites being encroached on by industrial elements, hydro towers, highways, fracking, etc. :/ But on a positive side, at least this site is there, withstanding thousands of years to still tell its tale.

      • Yes it’s terrible to see how land development is destroying these megalithic sites in India, and the lack of protection provided by authorities is saddening.

        I can only hope that as more attention is brought to these sites, the situation will change. This is particularly important for India right now in particular as the extent and pace of development there is immense, to meet the needs of its vast and growing population and economy. Without safeguards in place there is so much heritage that can be lost in the process.

        Despite the deterioration that’s already taken place at this site, it is still not too late to save it and protect what remains, which is why raising awareness is so crucial.

    • Great to see how these sacred sites are being uncovered and revealed for the world to see and appreciate.

      I wonder just how many similar sites exist within India and abroad…thanks for revealing these ‘hidden’ sites.

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