Sites Aligned to the Sun

Macedonia’s Kokino Megalithic Observatory & Sacred Site

Macedonia's Kokino Sacred Site and Ancient Observatory

A view of the Kokino Observatory and holy mountain.
Photo by MartinDimitrievski – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0. Image has been modified.

The megalithic observatory and sacred site at Kokino in Macedonia is one of the most important archaeological discoveries of the twenty-first century — a complex sacred site that served as a link between humans and the divine for thousands of years.

Towering atop a mountain peak near the town of Kumanovo (near the Serbian border), the Bronze Age site features an ancient observatory that tracks and captures the movements of the sun and moon through the year, the solstices and equinoxes, lunar and solar eclipses, and even captures certain stellar alignments — an incredibly complex living calendar from over 3,900 years ago that was used to follow and celebrate the celestial movements of the heavens and their influence on earthly life.

Discovery:

Milky way over Kokino

The Milky Way over the Kokino Observatory.
Photo by Petrovskyz – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0. Image has been modified.

The observatory and sacred site in the Kokino complex were first discovered in 2001 by the archaeologist Jovica Stankovski. Shortly thereafter, the physicist Gorje Cenev joined the exploration of the site (2002). It was due to their publicized findings that the astounding megalithic observatory at Kokino became widely known about.

Since its discovery, Kokino has been ranked as the world’s fourth most important ancient observatory by NASA, listed alongside sites such as Stonehenge, Angkor Wat, and Abu Simbel due to its incredibly precise and complex calendar alignments and features.

According to Cenev, the key to unlocking the meaning of the site and the function it served is the field of archaeoastronomy:

“Archeoastronomy is a scientific field of recent interest. Studying myths and religious views of ancient cultures related to the sky, as well as recognizing their real knowledge related to the movements of the celestial objects, positioning their places of rising and setting along the horizon, making and usage of calendars…”

Indeed an understanding of the ancient culture, its myths, legends, practices, and relationship with nature and the movements of the sky seems to be key to unraveling the mysteries atop this ancient holy mountain.

Dating:

Both archaeological findings at the site and the site’s alignments point to the site being constructed sometime between the 19th and 17th century BC (or close to four thousand years ago). More recently, in 2009, an Iron Age settlement was also found in the area, pointing to the site being frequented even further back in antiquity.

kokino pottery fragments

Some of the pottery found at Kokino.

Many ancient fragments of pottery, tools, and jewelry have been found at Kokino, indicating use of the site as a place of offerings and worship. Gorje Cenev speculated that the site was likely considered a sacred site, or a holy mountain, even prior to the construction of the observatory itself. Though undoubtedly, the presence of the observatory must have elevated the site to an important gathering place for sacred rites.

Though the dating of the site is largely considered established at this stage, it is difficult to say who the builders of the site were — what culture was behind this megalithic structure? The difficulty in identifying it more precisely stems from the understanding that many of the cultures who inhabited the region of Macedonia at the time, while all having their own distinct cultures, customs, rulers, languages, deities, etc., all had comparable overall beliefs about the nature of the world, the universe, life, and so on.

Archaeoastronomy tells us that the peoples of the past appear to have all lived in much closer harmony with nature, and shared a common understanding of celestial movements and their influence upon life on Earth, and celebrated as such accordingly. The culture that built this observatory appears to have certainly shared this understanding, which enabled them to build this site as both a way to track these celestial movements and celebrate them as well on special days of the year.

Kokino Culture and Spiritual Beliefs

kokino area

The Kokino area.
By Petrovskyz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Before delving into the site itself, to appreciate its long held majestic place amidst the sacred sites of the world, it’s helpful to have an overall picture of what the culture and spiritual life was like in the days of the construction of the site.

Cenev shares the following insights on the subject:

In the early Bronze Age people lived in entire unity with the nature. On the Balkan Peninsula, same as in the wider region of the East Mediterranean and Near East people acknowledged the surrounding world as magnificent creations of Gods, which is functioning according to their will and their rules. The first creation of Gods, usually called Cosmos, by itself, is perfect and is represent of the order and the goodness, opposite the Chaos, where anarchy and evil forces rule. In the act of creation of the Cosmos, Gods created man with a task to serve Gods and help them in maintaining the order and well functioning of this divine creation, which is attracted by the evil forces aiming to turn it into Chaos… That is why, in all cosmogonies, the three worlds are mentioned. The land, plants and animals are the world surrounding the man. Above him is the sky, so called Upper World or world where Gods, creators of the Cosmos live and from where they watch over its well functioning. Under the surface of the land is the Underworld or the world where the evil forces and the darkness rule.

Cenev also explains that:

In order to fulfill their task in front of the Gods, but at the same time, to survive in the real, i.e., the profane world, people need to understand the rhythm of nature, where symbolically, the Gods rule and the well functioning of the Cosmos was condensed. People found this above mentioned rhythm in the periodicity, in the change of the day and the night, in the moon phases, in the biological rhythm of the plants and animals. Thus, the periodicity has become basic characteristics and measure of the well functioning of the Cosmos. Knowledge and maintenance of the periodicity grow to be primary aim and need in order to conserve human life and well functioning not only of the human community but also of the cosmos too.

This is where a structure such as the complex calendar at Kokino would have come into place, to help those knowledgeable in celestial events to organize, guide, and inspire the inhabitants of the land.

Being in unity with nature of course meant constructing structures in alignment with nature’s patterns, highlighting and celebrating the spiritual principles and cosmic truths that have been woven into the tapestry of life itself.

The Kokino observatory contains three observation posts, which Cenev speculates were each symbolic for one of these three worlds (the kingdom of the Gods in the sky, the earthly human kingdom, and the Underworld region of the demons and dead). These three worlds are acknowledged in many religions and cultures, such as for instance the Gods, humans, and Asuras in the Vedic tradition.

Mountains in Regional Beliefs

Building an observatory atop a mountain peak provides a good vantage point for observing celestial movements. Yet mountains in general hold a special meaning in the culture and mythology of the area, so a sacred site atop a mountain peak seems a natural choice. Cenev notes that:

…there was believe that actually the mountain peaks are the centers of the world and places where all these three worlds of the Cosmos met [celestial kingdom of the Gods, Earth as the human kingdom, and the Underworld kingdom of demons and dead]… On those places, people felt closest to the Gods and tried to communicate with them through prayers, provisions of different kind of sacrifices and performance of various rituals. That is why, the oldest sanctuaries are found on very high places and in the open space…

Mount Meru

A 17th century Hindu depiction of the holy Mount Meru.

Myths and spirituality surrounding mountain peaks can be found in many ancient cultures, such as the Greek Mount Olympus (the dwelling of the Gods and the center of the universe), in Inca culture you find the ancient complex at Macchu Pichu to attest to the same — a holy place atop a mountain where one could connect with divinity, in Hindu tradition you find the same in mount Meru, and so on.

In her essay Kokino
: Archaeological Site and Megalithic Observatory,
 Biljana 
Volcevska
 explains the embedded significance of mountains into the regional culture:

In many Macedonian stories climbing a mountain is very much ritualised and it is believed that by climbing the sacred mountain the people find their way to their origins and get reunited with their gods. In many places in Macedonia there is belief that the fate of each person is predicted on the third night after his/her birth by the Three Fates. The predicted fate however can be only changed with the help of the Sun. One can approach the Sun, when after putting iron sandals, will take an iron stick and will walk for a long time and very far away to get to the peak of a mythical mountain where the Sun lives with its mother… With the help of the Sun’s mother the people can approach the Sun that after hearing them will solve all their problems. All this stories give a lot of meaning to Kokino as a mythical mountain where the admiration of the Sun has a central place.

The observatory mountain itself was known as a “holy mountain,” and there had been finds of vessels carrying offerings deposited into the crevices in the rocks — people had frequented the area for thousands of years to seek that connection and communication with the divine on the mountain.

The Kokino Complex and Natural Features

kokino observatory equinoxes and solstices

A view of the Kokino observatory, carved into the mountain.
Photo by MartinDimitrievski – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

Although at first glance the site appears to be a somewhat incoherent series of rocks sticking out of the ground and scattered about a mountain peak, a closer look reveals quite a different story. The builders of this ancient marvel were not only savvy of how to take advantage of the natural building elements of the mountain and surrounding area, but also extremely knowledgeable about tracking celestial movements with precision, and used that knowledge for various purposes including the celebration of the solstices and equinoxes.

The Kokino wider archaeological complex covers an area of about ninety by fifty meters (about thirty hectares). The observatory and sacred site form a portion of that area at the peak of a mountain (about five thousand square meters in total), consisting of two platforms.

Kokino observatory wall

The Kokino observatory wall, made of volcanic andesite rocks.

The natural stone found in the area lends itself well to the construction method used to carve out the observatory. The (igneous) andesite rocks crack vertically and horizontally when cooled, forming natural cube blocks that can then be shaped and carved into desired shapes, as well as fissures, all of which were used to carve out the niches for the calendar and the stone thrones found in the observatory. This construction method of transforming these rocks into an observatory is unique only to this site in Macedonia. Other stones on site suggest a transportation of additional raw stone materials brought to the site for further construction.

Site Features:

kokino observation platform

The Kokino peak.
By Darko Nikolovski (Own work) [GFDL or CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

The site consists of two hanging platforms / observation areas and markers for the movements of the sun, moon, and certain stellar alignments throughout the year. There is a clear central position used for observing these celestial movements. From this position, one would be looking at a rocky peak range with specially carved crevices in the places where the sun or moon rise or set on special days of the year, such as solstices and equinoxes. Four thrones grace a central observational area, facing the rising sun over the observatory.

Studies concluded that the measurements for these markers were made with extreme precision. Even though today the celestial movements are slightly off due to the polar shifts over the millennia, at the time of the observatory’s construction the markers were precisely aligned.

These markings enabled the observatory to function as a living calendar, announcing important cosmic events and seasons. Cenev explains that:

“Most probably, the announcement for the days when the most important events start was made by lighting fire on the mountain top located behind the thrones. This spot opens a view in a radius of more than 30km, and hence the fire could be seen by the inhabitants of all surrounding places.”

One could imagine how magical it would be to approach the mountain, seeing the fire lit up high on a day when the solstices or equinoxes were being celebrated.

The Thrones:

The four stone thrones at Kokino

The four stone thrones at Kokino.
By BrankaVV (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia Commons

At the center of the lower observation platform are four carved stone thrones. The stones are oriented precisely to the sunrise on summer solstice day. The person seated on one of these thrones will be greeted by the first ray of the solstice sun at dawn. According to researchers that position would have been symbolic and reserved for the person who has the closest bond to nature, the one who will be “enlightened” by the sun at the solstice. Most likely this position would have been occupied by the ruler.

Similar stone thrones have been found throughout the Near East, and written sources tell us that they were used by kings of the region and mimicked the seats of the Gods, thus symbolically connecting the king’s physical rule with the divine rule of the Gods. It is speculated that the stone thrones at Kokino were likewise used by the ruler and possibly by the priest presiding over the ceremonies as well.

One of the stone thrones has a special marker cutting at the top, marking it for ritual function connected with the summer solstice. On summer solstice day, at sunrise a ray of the sun penetrates through that cut opening illuminating the person seated on that throne. Cenev explains that “The illumination of the face of the ruler signified ritual union with the Sun God and returning/renewing of his ruling power.” He further elaborates:

“According to the archaeo-astronomical analysis, the main role of the thrones was the performing of the bonding ritual of the Sun God with his “representative” on Earth – the ruler, who sat on one of the thrones (the second one) during the ritual. A testimony for that is the distinct stone block with a separate marker cutting on its top, placed right under the highest elevation of the site. The ritual was performed in mid-summer (today in the last day of July) when the Sun rises exactly in the opening of the stone marker. The marker cutting was made with great precision, in such a way that the distance of its external vertical sides fully corresponds with the diameter of the Sun, when observed from the second throne. In order to enable the sun ray to fall on one of the thrones, the people had made a separate trench (incision) in the vertical rock that separates the upper from the lower platform of the site. In the day of the ritual the sun ray passes exactly by the right edge of the trench and falls only on the second throne, i.e. on the place where the most powerful member of the community sat. The day when the rite was performed corresponded with the time of the ending of the harvest – the end of the annual cycle of the plants, and in the same time end of the energy of the ruler. By reuniting with the Sun God, through the light that fell on its face during the ritual ceremony, the energy and the power of the ruler were renewed.”

A stone throne, being seated upon one, ruling from atop one, etc., can also be seen as an esoterically signifcant symbol. Stone, rock, the philosopher’s stone make a frequent appearance in the mythology and folklore of old and are symbolic for a transmformative alchemical work, involving the transformation and purification of one’s energies. To be illuminated by the sun while seated upon a stone throne is therefore also symbolically significant.

The Observatory Alignments

Sun observatory at kokino

A photo of the sun setting in one of the carved marker points in the calendar.
By markoskavesna (Flickr) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Despite the observatory being four millennia old, it still relatively accurately predicts the main positions of the sun and moon in the yearly cycle. Researchers believe that having a calendar of this sort helped to organize the community, both in day-to-day matters of life (such as the agricultural cycles) and also in spiritual celebrations and the performance of rituals.

SOLAR ALIGNMENTS: The main calendar observation area at the observatory is the thrones, which were the optimal location to view the celestial movements on the eastern horizon stone wall. The observatory wall had nine main marker grooves, three of which marked the sun rise on summer and winter solstices and autumn and spring equinoxes.

LUNAR ALIGNMENTS: The additional six markers were for tracing the full moon rise at it’s smallest and biggest declination point in summer and winter. Two additional markers measured the length of the lunar months within a periodic 19 year cycle, taking into account the major lunar standstill every 18.5 years. This type of tracking is completely unique to the Kokino observatory.

kokino alignments

Diagram by Jenny Resnick, reproduced based on a diagram by G. Cenev.

ECLIPSES: The observatory also monitors sun and moon eclipses. Cenev explains that “Since ancient times, unexpected events such as Sun and Moon eclipses were considered a bad sign. Shadow that is covering the bright image of the Sun or the image of the full Moon is considered as a manifestation of the forces of the evil and darkness, which are in constant fight for dominance with the forces of light and goodness. Therefore monitoring and knowledge related to the eclipses schedule gave the priests-sky observers from Kokino possibility to predict such events…”

In his article, The Ominous Influence of the Four Blood Moons, Belsebuub further explains that: “An eclipse of the moon represents an eclipse of the forces of illumination” and “…enhances the negative vibrations in the cosmos, upon the earth, and upon the human organism.”

Cenev explains that in anticipation of a lunar or solar eclipse rituals and magical ceremonies would have been held to offset the negative influence that such events could bring about. These events would have been led by the priests / sky observers who studied the patterns of the sky via the observatory.

kokino pleiades cluster

A NASA photo of the Pleiades Star Cluster.

ALIGNMENTS TO THE PLEIADES: One of the markers in the observatory was used to track the movement of the Pleiades star cluster. This creates an interesting link between this site and a similar interest in the Pleaides constellation in various other cultures throughout the world, such as the ancient Egyptians, the Greeks, the Maya, the pre-Columbian peoples of North America, certain African Tribes, Mesopotamia, the Celts, and so on.

Nebra Sky Disc

The Nebra Sky Disc, found in Nebra (Germany), is the oldest concrete depiction of the cosmos dating back to 1600 BC. It features the Pleiades star cluster and is believed to be an item of religious significance.

Much folklore and legends in these various cultures links the Pleiades to the origin of the human race and speak of visitors from the Pleiades visiting our planet in bygone days. Some cultures believe them to be our ancestors.

Interestingly the Nebra Sky Disc, an important Bronze Age artifact, is believed to have been constructed around the same time as the Kokino observatory, also depicting the Pleiades star cluster.

Celebration of the Mother Goddess

There is a commonly held regional belief that mountain peak sanctuaries are associated with the mother goddess. Kokino is the central sanctuary in the region, with twelve other satellite peak santuaries in the vicinity (all of which have a clear visual link with one another — think Lord of the Rings beacons of Gondor for a visual here, only more likely used for a ritual / spiritual purpose). Kokino was regarded as a holy mountain where sacred rites and rituals were performed. One of the main religions to have used the vicinity was the cult of the Great Goddess Mother (or Magna Mater, mother of all the gods). A second widespread Mediterranean cult called the cult of the holy matrimony between Mother Earth and the Sun also inhabited the mountain.

magna mater

A medieval alchemy depiction of the Great Mother Goddess.

The mountain was viewed as a personification of the body of the Great Goddess Mother / Mother Earth. On special days of the year (solstices and equinoxes) when the first ray of the sun fell upon the mountain peak it was seen as a symbolic sacred bond, a holy matrimony between the sun and the earth. Celebrations and sacred ceremonies would have been held around those times to honor and observe these special moments in the yearly cycle.

Another Mother Goddess-related cult to have performed their ceremonies and rituals at Kokino was the Fertility Cult. Fragments of pottery found deposited in cracks and crevices in the rock, the holes in the rock represented the womb of the Great Mother Goddess. Cenev explains that:

“The meaning of the cult is to see the mountain peak as the body of the Great Mother Goddess and the cracks in the rocks, the holes as her womb. …During the ritual, the obligations were put in the holes, thus representing the filling as the womb of the Great Mother Goddess. According to the ethnologist the pots were most probably filled with seeds, thus invoking the auspiciousness for better harvest in the following year. The role of the earth as a worshiped deity is confirmed already in many cultures in the Balkan regions of the time of the Bronze Age.
The earth was usually perceived as opposite to the sky, where the earth represented the female while the sky the mail aspect.”

On summer solstice, when the first rays of the sun lit up the throne and the one seated upon it, Cenev explains that:

“This ritual must have been of great importance for the community living on this site since indicates symbolic unification between the sun or the divine reality with the Great Mother Goddess. It was taking place at the time when harvest was ending thus announcing and celebrating the new cycle of nature’s renewal. “According to the beliefs of the people of that time, at the moment the ruler was lit, he was united with the Sun – God and that was a guarantee for the success of the following year’s harvest, for a good and peaceful life.””

More on the role of the Great Mother Goddess, and how she came to be excluded from religion today can be found in this article: Reestablishing the Feminine in the Godhead: The Role of the Mother Goddess in Spirituality.

Conclusion

The Kokino observatory in Macedonia has functioned as both a spiritual center and a complex observatory for millennia, showcasing how science and religion played a united role in daily life, with the sun viewed as a source of divinity. It in fact functions as a spiritual gathering center to this day, a place where tourists, artists, and spiritual practitioners come to connect with the energy of the mountain and the sun and to celebrate solstices, equinoxes, and explore the mystery of the path of the spiritual sun on this majestic mountain top. As one author remarked, “In kokino you are a king among the stars.”

_________

Sources:

Megalithic observatory Kokino, Cenev, G. Journal: Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade, Vol. 80, p. 313-317.
Ancient Secrets of Kokino Observatory, Gjore Ceneve, Kindle Edition, 2012.
Kokino
: Archaeological Site and Megalithic Observatory by
 Biljana 
Volcevska

Megalithic observatory Kokino, Cenev, G., Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade, Vol. 80, p. 313-317
Three Worlds of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino, Cenev, G., The Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena VI. Proceedings of a conference held October 18-23, 2009 in Venezia, Italy. Edited by Enrico Maria Corsini. ASP Conference Series, Vol. 441. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2011, p.495
Kokino on Wikipedia.
Archaeo-astronomical Site Kokino (UNESCO).
Kokino on Megalithic
The Ominous Influence of the Four Blood Moons by Belsebuub
in this article: Reestablishing the Feminine in the Godhead: The Role of the Mother Goddess in Spirituality
Enlightenment is Hidden in Sex by Belsebuub
Nebra Sky Disk on Wikipedia
The Pleiades in mythology
Kokino Observatory
Traditions of the Sun by Nasa

19 Comments

  • Kokino, what a great find! A hidden gem tucked away in Europe’s backyard. It amazes me how there are literally thousands of ancient sites throughout the world with stunning accurate alignments to the sun, moon, and stars, yet they are very little spoken about. It almost feels like something or someone is keeping the lit on research or information regarding these places. For that reason, it is no wonder sites like this one don’t get much exposure.

    Gorje Cenev conducted some great research on the site and tied it in with local beliefs at the time. One of his quotes makes perfect sense to me and I feel an urge to try to be more in tune with nature, especially during the solstices and equinoxes.

    “Being in unity with nature of course meant constructing structures in alignment with nature’s patterns, highlighting and celebrating the spiritual principles and cosmic truths that have been woven into the tapestry of life itself.”

    If these cosmic truths are woven into the fabric of life as Cenev says, it makes me want to tape into it too and to be able to feel what these ancient builders were so inspired by.

  • For as long as I remember maybe around 2001 Belsebuub mentioned about researching ancient spiritual sites, I’m starting to understand why.

    Thanks Jenny, excellent research and a great conclusion worth noting…..
    “The Kokino observatory in Macedonia has functioned as both a spiritual center and a complex observatory for millennia, showcasing how science and religion played a united role in daily life, with the sun viewed as a source of divinity. It in fact functions as a spiritual gathering center to this day, a place where tourists, artists, and spiritual practitioners come to connect with the energy of the mountain and the sun and to celebrate solstices, equinoxes, and explore the mystery of the path of the spiritual sun on this majestic mountain top. As one author remarked, “In kokino you are a king among the stars.”

  • What an amazing site Kokino is. With so many various and precise alignments, it makes me wonder how come that the stereotype of the ancients having primitive superstitious belief system can still thrive.

    They seem to have been so aware and so focused on something extremely profound. I wonder how that thread of deep knowledge was lost. It’s great that it has been found again and The Spiritual Sun project is bringing all these sites, connecting the dots throughout time and cultures.

    Thanks Jenny!

  • Wow, very nice finding. Thanks Jenny!

    Lucia and Ella, I also heard we each have a star out there. The brighter your star is, the more spiritual you are. There’s just so much to learn about the Universe, more more more….plse.

    • There’s just so much to learn about the Universe, more more more….plse.”

      Haha 🙂 I agree there’s so much to learn. Often my perception changes and I keep finding out how spirituality in fact works differently than what I conceived before.

  • Kokino! Sounds intruiging.

    Those quotes by Gorje Cenev are really good actually. It’s such a great thing when the archaeologist on site is open to and has an understanding of nature and the cosmos like that as well as local history. It opens up the story of a site and allows possible connections to be made.

    It’s very nice you wrote and elaborated on mountains. There’s definitely something very special about them and the symbolic meanings that could be attributed to them isn’t there? Something for everyone to take something out of, from the most casual tourist climber to the initiate or ruling godly king.

    I was once fairly close (-ish) to that place in Macedonia and the region was absolutely beautiful. I stayed at the foot and had a view of a giant mountain ‘wall’. The tremendous size and beauty were awe-inspiring.

    Thanks for doing all this research Jenny. Looking at that first image there seems to be a magic to the site (although I wouldn’t jump to the extraterrestrial connection as quickly as the ‘Ancient Aliens’ guys 🙂 ) I also suspect the site has been weathered down over time quite a bit and it would be nice to see what it looked like at its peak.

  • Thanks Jenny for bringing this place to light – I hadn’t heard of it at all! This research opens up a new side to the existence of spiritual sites – just think how many sacred mountains may have been used that have faded into obscurity, their alignments much more subtle, hidden in the folds of nature and shifting over time. In the country where I live now there are also no big megalithic sites, but instead sacred mountains where you can imagine their abandoned groves going totally unnoticed now or easily destroyed.

    I love that this site has a small touch from man’s hand; obviously the thrones and precise markers would have required significant effort but it shows to me an inherent intelligent and sacred design within nature, and an understanding that the users had of this. “…people need to understand the rhythm of nature, where symbolically, the Gods rule and the well functioning of the Cosmos was condensed.”

    Thanks again, very interesting site!

  • Jenny, Good work on your article! Another incredible ancient site is discovered and it has further clues to embodying the Path of the Spiritual Sun. I am continually amazed at learning how many sites are out there. I’m researching earthworks in the Ohio valley right now and I’m amazed to learn there are literally thousands of them. One particular I’m looking into has a lot of similar alignments to Kokino, including markers for the main points of the moon rise/sets in its 18.5 year cycle.

    Cenev’s cultural/historical research is definitely a gift to have. Not many of these sites can have that much back story.

    Thanks for your effort putting this together.

    • Andrew I was recently thinking something similar, being amazed at the amount of stone circles in Britain. Everyone knows Stonehenge of course, perhaps Avebury, Callanish and the ring of Brodgar, but check out this List. ! 🙂

      • I stumbled upon the ring of Brodgar too, and thought I would come back to it in the future. 🙂 But too busy now researching some others! As you guys said, there is just so many of these sites, and I am amazed at the number of people from all over the world that are being guided to discover, document and research these sites. Often, they are not archaeologists or any scientists at all, and they just stumble upon a rock or a pyramid-looking thing and then later on an amazing site is unearthed. Not all of them of course are so majestic, but it definitely feels like something “guided from above”. Very glad to be a part of it in some way.

  • Thank Jenny for the research and putting together the information about this remarkable unique place.

    It gives another proof of how ancient civilization lived, their connection with the universe and its qualities.​​
    I liked what says about the Three Fates. It reminds me another explanation of Karma.
    Gorje Cenev research also looks remarkable and all these information make me think how possible is to build this kind of observatory in our days.
    Looking forward to go that place!!

  • Wowww, a lot to take in! Thanks Jenny for finding and throughly researching this special place. I find the pictures of it really beautiful, and somehow each of them is very colourful, not sure if its just pictures, or if the colors are really so pronounced in the area. It also reminds me a bit of Machu Picchu – with all those stones scattered all around on the top of a mountain. Pleiades also seem to be mentioned in connection with many of these sacred sites connected to the Sun, which does not just look like a coincidence anymore…

    I also find the writings and discoveries of G. Cenev very special – how rare it is for a physicist to be able to tie together different aspects of research, including spiritual! Archeoastronomy definitely seems to be bringing a lot of light into the ancient cultures nowadays. I really hope that all these people searching for the light of Truth can join forces and that something amazing can come to the surface as a result, also thanks to this website. 🙂

    • Yes, definitely a lot to take in 😀

      Both myself and Jordan were really struck by how similar to Machu Picchu this site is as well. And I found the connection with the Pleiades quite interesting. Seems a common thread amongst so many sites and cultures.

      One other thing I thought was interesting, but it was just an observation and not based in any research information so I didn’t include it in the main article, but if you look at the chart with the alignments, there’s quite a bit of a resemblance with Orion’s belt. I haven’t been able to find any research about this. Likely one of the scientists studying the area explored this and perhaps things don’t quite align to draw the connection? Not sure, but thought I’d put my thoughts out here just in case. I find the resemblance quite strong.

      • Interesting observation Jenny. I was wondering, theoretically, if that was true, what would that mean on a deeper level/spiritually? Why would it be important that a certain view points towards a certain star? I know Orion has a signifance as a representation of the Christ/Initiate walking the path of the spiritual Sun, and the three stars in his belt are often re-played in different sacred sites, as you pointed out (for example the Pyramids of Egypt that according to Belsebuub are the “places of ascension”), but what about those stars? Why would they (theoretically) be important? Any ideas? Even though I know you guys try to stay very objective and down-to-Earth with all these researches, I thought I would throw in these contemplations here, as maybe other people have been wondering about the similar things, or something along the lines…

        • Hi Lucia,
          It’s become really clear to me that the stellar alignments of sites play a big part in their story. Orion’s belt is the most well known, but there are so many others. My understanding at the moment, or feeling on it, is that the stars represent different awakened beings. Whereas the sun may be the central absolute source of light, the cosmos is also full of gods and goddesses/different spiritual forces. The stars seems to represent this.

          Take Sirius, at the feet of Osiris, this became synonymous with Isis to the Egyptians and their calendar was based on its heliacal rising (first sighting) which was tied to the flooding of the Nile and fertility of Egypt. But even tiny constellations, like Delphinus, are linked to sacred sites. Delphinus was Apollo to the Ancient Greeks and when it was seen to be approaching Delpi the Oracle could mediate between the god and men, but not when it was moving away.
          It seems as well that the changing positions of stars in the sky had huge importance. The ancients knew about precession and big shifts in the stars effected by this cycle heralded huge social/spiritual changes. Monuments have been built to mark the disappearance of stars below the horizon or the coinciding of stars with solar paths: when Sirius aligned with the winter solstice Newgrange was built and parts of Avebury.

          Astroarcheology may well be the discipline that can help unravel some of the more subtle meanings to these immense sites!

          • Thanks Ella, I like what you said about the stars maybe representing different higher Beings, there may be something on that. I’ve also heard that some awakened masters are the “regents” of certain planets, and also its a popular notion that “everyone has his own star”, or that our higher Being is connected to a certain star. So this may definitely play a part in things. There may also be other reasons why the stars were important for the ancients, especially in relation to the spiritual path to awakening.

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