All over the world, megalithic structures known as dolmens can be found. In Russia specifically, so far there are around 3000 dolmens that have been found in groups or scattered alone throughout the dense forest, in the Western Caucasus area.
Dating back to approximately 3000 – 2000 BC, these stone buildings have been little understood. The dolmens all have slightly unique characteristics but overall they are built in a similar fashion: carved out of stone or with stacked and interlocking large stones. Each dolmen has a small circular hole found in them, with a plug that fits in the hole. They share many similarities with dolmens found all across the world, with some of the carvings (zig zag patterns) found within them matching some found on sacred sites in Ireland.
Although there has not been much research done on the alignments of the Russian dolmens, there has been some discoveries that found that some of the dolmens are aligned to the solstices and equinoxes.
Here are three examples of dolmens known to align to the solstices and equinoxes:
Mamed Canyon Dolmen
This Dolmen is one of the most unique, taking the shape of a pyramid. Not only that, but the pyramid shape itself has the exact same angles as the great pyramid of Giza, in Egypt. On the morning of the autumn or spring equinox, the sun can be seen rising over the top of the pyramid.
The Cairn and Underground Dolmen of Psinako Valley
This dolmen is also very unique, in that it was an underground dolmen with a large tunnel and mound on top, similar in build to Ireland’s Newgrange. It no longer exists due to many developments on the land but some research was done into the site by Russian researcher M.K.Teshev. More recently a 3D virtual image was made to depict what the cairn may have looked like at the time. It is said that the tunnel of this site aligns with the winter solstice sunset. It is possible this site has many more alignments but nothing more is known at this time. You can find the 3D recreation of this site here.
The Wolf Rock Dolmens Group of the Lazarevskoye Region
A series of dolmens in this area have been called the Wolf Rock dolmens, since one of the dolmens is believed to have the shape of a wolf/dog. There are roughly 20 dolmens in this area, two of which are surrounded by stone rings. One of the dolmens surrounded with a ring has what researchers call a ‘false portal’ which is basically the circular “door” that is normally found on the dolmens, except in this case it is completely sealed. The true entrance is located on the back of the dolmen. On the winter solstice the sun rise aligns with the real entrance and the sunset aligns with the false entrance.
Further Research Into Dolmens
There has also been some interesting research done into the placement of the dolmens in the western Caucasus area, by a group who took an existing map of the dolmens and have discovered it aligns with several constellations. You can view this map and information here.
Today, many are falling into disrepair or being destroyed over time. Very little is known about the people who built and used the dolmens.
It is possible that many more of these dolmens align to the solstices and equinoxes, which suggests they could have been used for ceremonies celebrating these times of the year.
There are also a few artifacts and carvings in the rock that further suggest the people who used the dolmens knew the significance of the spiritual sun.
For example, an interesting symbol found on a dolmen, is the sun cross which is a symbol found all over the world in various forms, representing the solar calender. It is known as Odin’s cross in Norse mythology, and can be found associated with Aztec sun worship and is also often interchanged with the Swastika, a symbol associated with the sun as well as the movement of the earth.
Many of the plugs that have been found that fit into the dolmen circular entrances have been described as phallic shaped, which could suggest the dolmens themselves are built as a symbolic representation of the womb, and sexual alchemy, as well as rebirth, which is a common theme for the winter solstice.
Dolmens Around the World
Looking at the dolmens from around the world, we can start to get a better sense of these structures. How was it possible that in so many different places these structures were built? The similarities are startling. Who built these? Since some (and possibly many more than we know of) are aligned to the solstices and equinoxes,and given the markings they’ve left behind on the dolmens, it’s possible that the people who built and used these structures were aware of and practiced the principles of the spirituality of the sun.
Article by Vida Norris. Research by Vida Norris and Vadim Lapine.